This port city on the southern island of Kyushu was one of the first to open up to western trade, making for a unique mix of Japanese and western architecture. The old Portuguese compound of Dejima can still be explored today. With its tram system and laid back bayside lifestyle, it is the San Francisco of Japan and is best viewed from Glover Gardens beyond the old western mansions and church on the Dutch Slope. Like Hiroshima, it has a Peace Park and museum that stand testament to the destruction wrought by the atomic bomb. You can now also reach the mysterious abandoned island of Gunkanjima from here, which provided inspiration for the villain’s lair in the recent James Bond movie Skyfall.